How COVID-19 spreads
When someone who has COVID-19 coughs or exhales they release droplets of infected fluid. Most of these droplets fall on nearby surfaces and objects, such as desks, tables or telephones. People could catch COVID-19 by touching contaminated surfaces or objects, and then touching their eyes, nose, or mouth. If they are standing within 1 meter of a person with COVID-19 they can catch it by breathing in droplets coughed out or exhaled by them. In other words, COVID-19 spreads in a similar way to flu. Most persons infected with COVID-19 experience mild symptoms and recover. However, some experience more serious illness and may require hospital care. Risk of serious illness rises with age: people over 40 seem to be more vulnerable than those under 40. People with weakened immune systems and people with conditions such as diabetes, heart and lung disease are also more vulnerable to serious illness.
This document gives advice on:
- Simple ways to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in your workplace
- How to manage COVID-19 risks when organizing meetings and events
- Things to consider when you and your employees travel
- Getting your workplace ready in case COVID-19 arrives in your community.
1. Simple ways to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in your workplace
The low-cost measures below will help prevent the spread of infections in your workplace, such as colds, flu
and stomach bugs, and protect your customers, contractors, and employees.
Employers should start doing these things now, even if COVID-19 has not arrived in the communities where
they operate. These measures can reduce working days lost due to illness and stop or slow the
spread of COVID-19 if it arrives at one of your workplaces.
- Make sure your workplaces are clean and hygienic
- Surfaces (e.g. desks and tables) and objects (e.g. telephones, keyboards) need to be wiped
- Why? Because contamination on surfaces touched by employees and customers is one of the main
ways that COVID-19 spreads.
- Promote regular and thorough hand-washing by employees, contractors, and customers
- Put sanitizing hand rub dispensers in prominent places around the workplace. Make sure these
dispensers are regularly refilled
- Display posters promoting hand-washing ask your local public health authority for these or
- Combine with other communication measures such as offering guidance from occupational health
and safety officers, briefings at meetings, and information on intranet sites to promote
- Make sure that staff, contractors, and customers have access to places where they can wash
their hands with soap and water
- Why? Because washing kills the virus on your hands and prevents the spread of COVID-19.
- Promote good respiratory hygiene in the workplace
- Display posters promoting respiratory hygiene. Combine this with other communication measures
such as guidance from occupational health and safety officers, briefing at meetings, and
information on the intranet, etc.
- Ensure that face masks1 or paper tissues are available at your workplaces, for those who
develop a runny nose or cough at work, along with closed bins for hygienically disposing of
- Why? Because good respiratory hygiene prevents the spread of COVID-19.
- Advise employees and contractors to consult national travel advice before going on business trips.
- Brief your employees, contractors, and customers that if COVID-19 starts spreading in your community
anyone with even a mild cough or low-grade fever (37.3 C or more) needs to stay at home. They should
also stay home (or work from home) if they have had to take simple medications, such as
paracetamol/acetaminophen, ibuprofen or aspirin, which may mask symptoms of infection.
- Keep promoting the message that people need to stay at home even if they have only mild
symptoms of COVID-19
- Display posters with this message in your workplaces. Combine this with other communication
channels commonly used in your organization or business
- Your occupational health services, local public health authority, or other partners may have developed
campaign materials to promote this message
- Make clear to employees that they will be able to count this time off as sick leave.
2. How to manage COVID-19 risk when organizing meetings and events
Why do employers and organizers need to think about COVID-19?
Organizers of meetings and events need to think about the potential risk from COVID-19 because:
- There is a risk that people attending your meeting or event might unwittingly bring the COVID-19 virus to the meeting. Others might be unknowingly exposed to COVID-19.
- Although COVID-19 is a mild disease for most people, it can make some very ill. Around 1 in every 5 people who catch COVID-19 needs hospital treatment.
Key considerations to prevent or reduce COVID-19 risks
BEFORE the meeting or event
- Check the advice from the authorities in the community where you plan to hold the meeting or event. Follow their advice.
- Develop and agree a preparedness plan to prevent infection at your meeting or event.
- Consider whether a face-to-face meeting or event is needed. Could it be replaced by a teleconference
or online event?
- Could the meeting or event be scaled down so that fewer people attend?
- Verify information and communication channels in advance with key partners such as public health and
health care authorities.
- Pre-order sufficient supplies and materials, including tissues and hand sanitizer for all
participants. Have surgical masks available to offer anyone who develops respiratory symptoms.
- Actively monitor where COVID-19 is circulating. Advise participants in advance that if they have any
symptoms or feel unwell, they should not attend.
- Make sure all organizers, participants, caterers, and visitors at the event provide contact details:
mobile telephone number, email, and address where they are staying. State clearly that their details
will be shared with local public health authorities if any participant becomes ill with a suspected
infectious disease. Anyone who does not agree to this condition cannot attend the event or meeting.
Develop and agree a response plan in case someone at the meeting becomes ill with symptoms of COVID-19 (dry cough, fever, malaise). This plan should include at least:
- Identify a room or area where someone who is feeling unwell or has symptoms can be safely isolated
- Have a plan for how they can be safely transferred from there to a health facility.
- Know what to do if a meeting participant, staff member, or service provider tests positive for COVID-19
during or just after the meeting
- Agree the plan in advance with your partner health care provider or health department.
DURING the meeting or event
- Provide information or a briefing, preferably both orally and in writing, on COVID-19 and the measures that organizers are taking to make this event safe for participants.
- Build trust. For example, as an icebreaker, practice ways to say hello without touching.
- Encourage regular hand-washing or use of an alcohol rub by all participants at the meeting or event.
- Encourage participants to cover their face with the bend of their elbow or a tissue if they cough or sneeze. Supply tissues and closed bins for disposal.
- Provide contact details or a health hotline number that participants can call for advice or to give information.
- Display dispensers of alcohol-based hand rub prominently around the venue.
- If there is space, arrange seats so that participants are at least 1 meter apart.
- Open windows and doors whenever possible to make sure the venue is well ventilated.
- If anyone who starts to feel unwell, follow your preparedness plan or call your hotline.
- Depending on the situation in your area, or recent travel of the participant, place the person in the isolation room. Offer the person a mask so they can get home safely, if appropriate, or to a designated assessment facility.
- Thank all participants for their cooperation with the provisions in place.
AFTER the meeting
- Retain the names and contact details of all participants for at least one month. This will help public
health authorities trace people who may have been exposed to COVID-19 if one or more participants become
ill shortly after the event.
- If someone at the meeting or event was isolated as a suspected COVID-19 case, the organizer should inform
participants. They should be advised to monitor themselves for symptoms for 14 days and take their
temperature twice a day.
- If they develop even a mild cough or low-grade fever (i.e. a temperature of 37.3 C or more) they should
stay at home and self-isolate. This means avoiding close contact (less than 1 meter) with other people,
including family members. They should also call their health care provider or the local public health
department, giving them details of their recent travel and symptoms.
- Thank all the participants for their cooperation with the provisions in place.
3. Things to consider when you and your employees travel
- Make sure your organization and its employees have the latest information on areas where COVID-19 is
spreading. You can find this at
- Based on the latest information, your organization should assess the benefits and risks related to
upcoming travel plans.
- Avoid sending employees who may be at higher risk of serious illness (e.g. older employees and those with
medical conditions such as diabetes, heart and lung disease) to areas where COVID-19 is spreading.
- Make sure all persons travelling to locations reporting COVID-19 are briefed by a qualified professional
(e.g. staff health services, health care provider or local public health partner)
- Consider issuing employees who are about to travel with small bottles of alcohol-based hand rub. This can
facilitate regular hand-washing.
- Encourage employees to wash their hands regularly and stay at least 1 m away from people who are coughing
- Ensure employees know what to do and whom to contact if they feel ill while traveling.
- Ensure that your employees comply with instructions from local authorities and any local restrictions on
travel, movement, or large gatherings where they are travelling.
When you or your employees return from traveling:
- Employees who have returned from an area where COVID-19 is spreading should monitor themselves for symptoms for 14 days and take their temperature twice a day.
- If they develop even a mild cough or low-grade fever (i.e. a temperature of 37.3 C or more) they should stay at home and self-isolate. This means avoiding close contact (less than 1 m) with other people, including family members. They should also call their health care provider or the local public health department, giving them details of their recent travel and symptoms.
4. Getting your workplace ready in case COVID-19 arrives in your community
- Develop a plan for what to do if someone becomes ill with suspected COVID-19 at one of your workplaces
- The plan should cover putting the ill person in a room or area where they are isolated from
others in the workplace, limiting the number of people who have contact with the sick person, and
contacting the local health authorities.
- Consider how to identify persons who may be at risk, and support them, without inviting stigma
and discrimination. This could include persons who have recently travelled to an area reporting
cases, or other personnel who have conditions that put them at higher risk of serious illness
(e.g. diabetes, heart and lung disease, older age).
- Tell your local public health authority you are developing the plan and seek their input.
- Promote regular teleworking across your organization. If there is an outbreak of COVID-19 in your community the health authorities may advise people to avoid public transport and crowded places. Teleworking will help your business keep operating while your employees stay safe.
- Develop a contingency and business continuity plan for an outbreak in the communities where your business
- The plan will help prepare your organization for the possibility of an outbreak of COVID-19 in its
workplaces or community. It may also be valid for other health emergencies.
- The plan should address how to keep your business running even if a significant number of employees,
contractors and suppliers cannot come to your place of business, either due to local restrictions on
travel or because they are ill.
- Communicate to your employees and contractors about the plan and make sure they are aware of what
they need to do, or not do, under the plan. Emphasize key points such as the importance of staying
away from work even if they have only mild symptoms or have had to take simple medications (e.g.
paracetamol, ibuprofen) that may mask the symptoms.
- Be sure your plan addresses the mental health and social consequences of a case of COVID-19 in the
workplace or in the community and offer information and support.
For small and medium-sized businesses without in-house staff health and welfare support, develop partnerships and plans with your local health and social service providers in advance of any emergency.
- Your local or national public health authority may be able to offer support and guidance in developing your plan.
Now is the time to prepare for COVID-19. Simple precautions and planning can make a big difference. Action now will help protect your employees and your business.
How to stay informed:
Find the latest information from WHO on where COVID-19 is spreading:
Advice and guidance from WHO on COVID-19